Human Milk Oligosaccharides

Lacto-N-fucopentaose III (LNFP III)

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Lacto-N-fucopentaose III (LNFP III) is one of the neutral fucosylated HMOs found in human milk. LNFP III occurs in human milk in a concentration of about 0.26 (± 0.15) g/L1,2,3. Various studies have demonstrated an immunomodulatory effect of LNFP III affecting e.g. immune cell activities, and usage of the pentasaccharide in prevention of autoimmune diseases and metabolic disorders is discussed4,5. By binding to exotoxins of different bacterial pathogens LNFP III potentially has an inhibitory effect against infections6. Fucosylated pentaoses also promote growth of Bifidobacteria7.

At Jennewein Biotechnologie LNFP III is presently under development.


  1. Thurl, Stephan, et al. “Systematic review of the concentrations of oligosaccharides in human milk.” Nutrition reviews11 (2017): 920-933.
  2. Smilowitz, et al. “The human milk metabolome reveals diverse oligosaccharide profiles. Nutr. 143.11(2013): 1709-18.
  3. Borewicz, Klaudyna, et al. “The association between breastmilk oligosaccharides and faecal microbiota in healthy breastfed infants at two, six, and twelve weeks of age.” Scientific reports,1 (2020): 1-12.
  4. Zhu et al. “Immune modulation by Lacto-N-fucopentaose III in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. ” Immunol. 142.3(2012): 351-61.
  5. Bharagava et ai. “Immunomodulatory glycan LNFPIII alleviates hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance through direct and indirect control of metabolic pathways. ” Med. 18.11 (2012): 1665-72.
  6. Amr El-Hawiet, Elena N Kitova, John S Klassen, “Recognition of human milk oligosaccharides by bacterial exotoxins”. Glycobiology, Volume 25, Issue 8, (2015): 845–854.
  7. Gotoh, Aina, et al. “Sharing of human milk oligosaccharides degradants within bifidobacterial communities in faecal cultures supplemented with Bifidobacterium bifidum.” Scientific reports,1 (2018): 1-14.