Human Milk Oligosaccharides

Difucosyllactose (DiFL)

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The fucosylated HMO Difucosyllactose (DiFL) occurs with a concentration of 0.33 (± 0.17) g/l in human milk 1,2. Similar to the fucosyllactose trisaccharides, 2’-fucosylactose and 3-fucosyllactose, Difucosyllactose promotes the growth of Bifidobacteria, thus helping to shape the gut microbiome 3. 2-linked fucosyllactoses generally have the potential to reduce the risk of diarrhea diseases caused by either bacterial or viral pathogens. Difucosyllactose is believed to counter viral infections; due to the binding of bacterial exotoxins, difucosyllactose can also generally protect against intestinal pathogens 2,4.


At Jennewein Biotechnologie, Difucosyllactose is presently undergoing development. Please contact us for further details:



  1. McGuire, Michelle K., et al. “What’s normal? Oligosaccharide concentrations and profiles in milk produced by healthy women vary geographically.” The American journal of clinical nutrition5 (2017): 1086-1100.
  2. Morrow, Ardythe L., et al. “Human milk oligosaccharides are associated with protection against diarrhea in breast-fed infants.” The Journal of pediatrics3 (2004): 297-303.
  3. Gotoh, Aina, et al. “Sharing of human milk oligosaccharides degradants within bifidobacterial communities in faecal cultures supplemented with Bifidobacterium bifidum.” Scientific reports,1 (2018): 1-14.
  4. Amr El-Hawiet, Elena N Kitova, John S Klassen, “Recognition of human milk oligosaccharides by bacterial exotoxins”. Glycobiology, 25.8 (2015): 845–854.